Thought Disorder underlies multiple mental illnesses.
- Flight of Ideas – Language may be difficult to understand, it switches quickly from one unrelated idea to another.
- Long-winded and very delayed at reaching its goal
- Schizophasia – (Incoherence or Word salad) Characterized by confused usage of words with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. Words are inappropriately strung together resulting in “gibberish.”
- Alogia – (Poverty of Speech) Deficiency in content of speech compared to what level of information is normally expected.
- “One word” direct answers without expanding. Another question must be asked to learn more.
- Blocking – Interruption of train of speech before completion.
- Forgets what one is saying (or not recall the topic) mid-speech.
- Circumstantiality – Speech that is highly detailed and very delayed at reaching its goal. Speaking about many concepts related to the point of the conversation before eventually returning to the point and concluding the thought. Excessive long-windedness.
- Clanging – Sounds (repetition of) govern the words or topics, much like rhyming in poetry.
- Derailment – (Loose Association or Knight’s Move thinking) Ideas slip off the topic’s track on to another that is unrelated.
- Distractible speech – During mid speech, the subject is changed in response to a stimulus (such as seeing something).
- Echolalia – Echoing of one’s or other people’s speech that may only be committed once, or may be continuous in repetition. This may involve repeating only the last few words or last word of the examiner’s sentences.
- Evasive interaction – Attempts to express ideas and/or feelings about another individual come out as evasive (um, uh, er)
- Illogicality – Conclusions are reached that do not follow logically
- Loss of goal – Failure to follow a train of thought to a natural conclusion.
- Neologisms – New word formations or use of words that have meaning only to the person who uses them, independent of their common meaning.
- Perseveration – Persistent repetition of words or ideas. This may also involve repeatedly giving the same answer to different questions.
- Phonemic paraphasia – Mispronunciation; syllables out of sequence.
- Pressure of speech – An increase in the amount of spontaneous speech compared to what is considered customary. This may also include an increase in the rate of speech. Alternatively it may be difficult to interrupt the speaker; the speaker may continue speaking even when a direct question is asked.
- Self-reference – Patient repeatedly and inappropriately refers back to self.
- Semantic paraphasia – Substitution of inappropriate word.
- Stilted speech – Speech excessively stilted and formal.
- Tangentiality – Replying to questions in an oblique, tangential or irrelevant manner.
- Word approximations – Old words used in a new and unconventional way.
These symptoms can occur in any individual under stress.
Thought Disorder aims to the severe degree of these symptoms and the ability of it to cause functional impairment.
Quoted from Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_thought_disorder
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