Rumination is a way of responding to distress that involves repetitively focusing on the symptoms of distress, and on its possible causes and consequences.
Rumination is similar to worry except rumination focuses on bad feelings and experiences from the past, whereas worry is concerned over potential bad events in the future.
The tendency to ruminate is a stable constant over time and serves as a significant risk factor for clinical depression.
Rumination is more common in people who are pessimistic, neurotic, and who have negative attributional styles.
Neuroticism is an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states. Those who are neurotic respond more poorly to environmental stress, and are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult.
Pessimism is a state of mind in which one perceives life negatively. Is the glass half empty or half full? Perception is unique to every individual and is simply one’s interpretation of reality. A pessimistic point of view sees the glass half empty.
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