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Rapid Acting Antidepressant

Rapid-Acting Antidepressant

UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have generated fresh insights that could aid in the development of rapid-acting antidepressants for treatment-resistent depression. The researchers found that by blocking NMDA receptors with the drug ketamine, they could elicit rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression.  Ketamine was developed as an anesthetic, but is better known publicly for its abuse as the party drug Special K.  Researchers are now seeking alternatives because ketamine can produce side effects that include hallucinations and the potential for abuse -- limiting its utility as an antidepressant. Therefore, researchers had been investigating a drug called memantine, currently FDA-approved for treating moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, as a potentially promising therapy for treatment-resistant depression.  Memantine acts on the same receptors...

UT Southwestern Medical Center...

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Prednisone

Prednisone induced Bipolar Symptoms

Case Study - Mood and Cognitive Changes During Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy by E. Sherwood Brown PhD MD and Patricia A. Chandler MD: Patient A is a 43-year-old woman with no past psychiatric history who was diagnosed with Behçet's disease 4 years ago requiring chronic corticosteroid therapy.  Since beginning prednisone, 10–20 mg daily, she reported “severe mood swings” that worsened when the dose was increased. She had episodes of elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased sleep (3 hours each night), racing thoughts, and pressured speech.  However, she also had periods of depressed mood, increased appetite and weight gain, poor concentration, loss of interest, and suicidal ideation.  The prednisone dose could not be reduced without a worsening of symptoms of Behçet's disease.  Psychiatric...

Case Study - Mood and Cognitiv...

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clinical trials

Clinical Trials

http://clinicaltrials.gov Provides a search engine to find clinical trials in your area. ClinicalTrials.gov is a Web-based resource that provides patients, their family members, health care professionals, researchers, and the public with easy access to information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies on a wide range of diseases and conditions.  The Web site is maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). ClinicalTrials.gov was created as a result of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA).  FDAMA required the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, through NIH, to establish a registry of clinical trials information for both federally and privately funded trials conducted under investigational new drug applications (IND) to test the...

http://clinicaltrials.gov P...

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neuroimaging

Therapy Changes the Brain

During the past several decades, it has become clear that all mental processes derive from mechanisms of the brain.  This means that any change in our psychological processes is reflected by changes in the functions or structures of the brain. Functional neuroimaging, including single photon emission CT (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional MRI, has made it possible to study changes at the brain systems level (by measuring changes in brain blood flow or metabolisms) and, increasingly, also on the molecular level using SPECT and PET in the living human brain. ...

During the past several decade...

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Brain Pacemaker

Brain Pacemaker

During a five-hour surgery at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Kathy Sanford became the first Alzheimer’s patient in the United States to have a pacemaker implanted in her brain. She is the first of up to 10 patients who will be enrolled in an FDA-approved study at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center to determine if using a brain pacemaker can improve cognitive and behavioral functioning in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The study employs the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS), the same technology used to successfully treat about 100,000 patients worldwide with movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.  In the study, researchers hope to determine whether DBS surgery can improve function governed by the frontal lobe and neural networks involved in cognition...

During a five-hour surgery at ...

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Electronic Implant for Memory

Electronic Implant for Memory

Theodore Berger, a biomedical engineer and neuroscientist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, envisions a day in the not too distant future when a patient with severe memory loss can get help from an electronic implant.  In people whose brains have suffered damage from Alzheimer’s, stroke, or injury, disrupted neuronal networks often prevent long-term memories from forming. Berger has designed silicon chips to mimic the signal processing that those neurons do when they’re functioning properly—the work that allows us to recall experiences and knowledge for more than a minute.  Ultimately, Berger wants to restore the ability to create long-term memories by implanting chips like these in the brain. Berger and his research partners have yet to conduct human tests...

Theodore Berger, a biomedical ...

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Psychiatric Advance Directives

Psychiatric Advance Directives

Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments that may be used to document a competent person’s specific instructions or preferences regarding future mental health treatment, in preparation for the possibility that the person may lose capacity to give or withhold informed consent to treatment during acute episodes of psychiatric illness. Almost all states permit some form of legal advance directive (AD) for healthcare, which can be used to direct at least some forms of psychiatric treatment. Find your state's psychiatric advance directives http://www.nrc-pad.org/state-by-state Some states, such as Florida, do not currently have a specific statute for a psychiatric advance directive, you can learn more about general advance directives for health care at http://www.caringinfo.org Quoted from Sources: National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives http://nrc-pad.org Caring Connections caringinfo.org Featured Image Source:...

Psychiatric advance directives...

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BC2M pledge

Help me erase the stigma of mental illness

Hello. One in four families are affected by mental illness. Today, I did something to help them. For people living with mental illness, the fear of stigma can have a devastating effect on their ability to live normal, healthy lives. That's why I took the Bring Change 2 Mind pledge to stand up against the stigma of mental illness. Will you join me? http://bringchange2mind.org/joinbc2m Bring Change 2 Mind is an organization dedicated to fighting the stigma of mental illness, and providing information and support to those living with mental illness. By taking their pledge, you promise to learn about mental health issues, and to reach out to those who may be struggling with such issues. If you are living with a mental illness, you pledge...

Hello. One in four families...

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EEG Brain Wave Optimization

EEG – Brain Wave Optimization

I did a first session of Brave Wave Optimization, here is a written summary of the EEG test results: Assessment Results: Frontal -  (Eyes Open) low frequencies too active correlates to possible focus problems, memory issues.  right side dominance that is also greater than left central correlates to possible depression. Temporal - (Eyes Open) left side dominance in conjunction with autonomic nervous system correlates to para-sympathetic dominance with possible:   low blood pressure, 'rest & digest stage',  flat line emotions, digestive problems. Temporal, Occipital & Parietal - high frequencies in 70-80 range are greater than 10%, correlating possible low sexual function, obsessive/compulsive problems, sleep problems. 40-50 range (alpha) - lack of right side dominance which could indicate internal anxiety. Quoted from Source:  Center for Optimal Health Grant it, the doctor was...

I did a first session of Brave...

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TMS

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to cause depolarization or hyperpolarization in the neurons of the brain.  TMS uses electromagnetic induction to induce weak electric currents using a rapidly changing magnetic field; this can cause activity in specific or general parts of the brain with minimal discomfort, allowing for study of the brain's functioning and interconnections. A variant of TMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been tested as a treatment tool for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The exact details of how TMS functions are still being explored. The effects of TMS can be divided into two types depending on the mode of stimulation: Single or paired pulse TMS causes neurons in the neocortex under the site of stimulation to depolarize and discharge anaction potential.  If used in the primary motor cortex, it produces muscle activity referred to as a motor evoked...

Transcranial magnetic stimulat...

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Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for certain types of intractable epilepsy and treatment-resistant depression. Vagus, the tenth cranial nerve, arises from the medulla and carries both afferent and efferent fibers.  The afferent vagal fibers connect to the nucleus of the solitary tract which in turn projects connections to other locations in the central nervous system.  Little is understood about exactly how vagal nerve stimulation modulates mood and seizure control but proposed mechanisms include alteration of norepinephrine release by projections of solitary tract to the locus coeruleus, elevated levels of inhibitory GABA related to vagal stimulation and inhibition of aberrant cortical activity by reticular system activation. Other brain stimulation techniques used to treat depression include Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). Deep brain stimulation is currently under study as a treatment for depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is...

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)...

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Alpha-Stim® CES

Alpha-Stim®

The Alpha-Stim®'s proprietary waveform works by moving electrons through the brain at a variety of frequencies, collectively known as harmonic resonance. With these waveforms, it minimizes the effects of depression, shifts the emotional reactions of anxiety, calms the body to lessen insomnia and diminishes the levels of pain one may be experiencing.  This waveform normalizes the electrical activity of the brain as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG).   2013 models: Alpha-Stim® cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) Based on previous and ongoing studies, it appears that the Alpha-Stim® microcurrent waveform activates particular groups of nerve cells that are located at the brainstem.  These groups of nerve cells produce the chemicals serotonin and acetylcholine which can affect the chemical activity of nerve cells that are both nearby and...

The Alpha-Stim®'s proprietary...

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Brainwave Optimization

Brainwave Optimization

By chance I saw this promotion on groupon "Brainwave-Balancing Session and Assessment" Brainwave Optimization measures electromagnetic energy through tiny detection devices placed on a client’s head.  These brain energy detection devices (Intellisensors™) are sophisticated sensors that contain a computer chip capable of picking up the tiny current of the brain in an entirely noninvasive manner.  The brainwaves detected are replicated in a variety of colorful waveforms on a computer screen, the underlying science is electroencephalography (EEG). A typical series of Brainwave Optimization sessions takes place over the course of about a week, beginning with a non-invasive Brainwave Assessment that identifies brain pattern disturbances as well as strategies to re-balance brain patterns.  Based on the individual’s assessment, protocols are identified (from a bank...

By chance I saw this promotion...

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MAOI

MAOI

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors - MAOIs Because of potentially lethal dietary and drug interactions, monoamine oxidase inhibitors have been reserved as a last line of treatment, used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs have failed. MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-A preferentially deaminates (removes/breaks down) serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. MAO-B preferentially deaminates (removes/breaks down) phenylethylamine and trace amines. Dopamine is equally deaminated (removed/broken down) by both types. MAOIs inhibit the catabolism (break down) of dietary amines. If foods containing Tryptophan are consumed, Hyperserotonemia (Serotonin Syndrome) may result. When foods containing Tyramine are consumed, the individual may suffer from hypertensive crisis. It is assumed that tyramine displaces Norepinephrine from the storage vesicles.  This may trigger a cascade in which excessive amounts of Norepinephrine can lead to a hypertensive crisis....

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ...

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Benzodiazepine

Anxiolytics

Anxiolytics are used to treat the symptoms of Anxiety, Fibromyalgia, Insomnia, etc.  They have a tranquilizing/sedative effect. Take the time to research Medications prescribed to you: -  Prescribing Information -  Boxed Warnings -  Medication Guide -  Be aware of any guidelines or warnings if taken in conjunction with other psychiatric medications In your prescription pamphlet:  if you find a symbol near the name of your medication that resembles CIV, C-IV, or a large C with IV smaller in it's center, it stands for Schedule IV Controlled Substance.  A controlled substance is restricted and controlled completely:  the making of the drug or substance, ownership, delivery, use, and disposal (throwing away) are restricted by the government. Below is a list of Medications in the U.S.A. Generic Name Brand Name/® Registered Trademark and their website Pharmaceutical or...

Anxiolytics are used to treat...

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Stimulants

Stimulants

Stimulants (Psychostimulants) are used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Narcolepsy, and/or clinical Depression, etc.  Effects are enhanced alertness, wakefulness, etc. Take the time to research the Stimulant prescribed to you: -  Prescribing Information -  Boxed Warnings -  Medication Guide -  Be aware of any guidelines or warnings if taken in conjunction with other psychiatric medications Below is a list of Stimulant medications in the U.S.A. Generic Name Brand Name/Registered ® Trademark  and their website Pharmaceutical or Marketing company who manufactures/markets the Brand Name Brands are listed for informational purposes only with no intention of infringement of their Registered ® Trademark/Copyright ©. In your prescription pamphlet:  if you find a symbol near the name of your medication that resembles CII it stands for Schedule II Controlled Substance.  A controlled substance is restricted and controlled completely:  the making...

Stimulants (Psychostimulants)...

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Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic

An Antipsychotic, also known as Neuroleptic, is used in the treatment of Schizophrenia, Manic Depressive Disorder (Bipolar) and/or other disorders with symptoms of psychosis, delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder, manic or depressive episodes, etc.  They may have a tranquilizing effect.  Some may have an effect on the Dopamine system. They tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways, but they encompass a wide range of receptor targets: -  dopamine antagonist (blocks), some categorized as typical -  dopamine partial agonists (activates), some categorized as atypical -  serotonin and dopamine antagonists -  MARTA, multi-acting receptor-targeted antipsychotics It's a matter of determining if the benefit outweighs the risk: Some of the Warnings/Adverse effects may include: extrapyramidal effects on motor control akathisia (an inability to sit still) trembling muscle weakness weight gain decrease in brain volume agranulocytosis (lowered white blood cell count) tardive dyskinesia...

An Antipsychotic, also known a...

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Mood Stabilizer

Mood Stabilizers

Mood stabilizers are used to treat Manic-Depressive Disorder (Bipolar), Schizoaffective disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and/or Fibromyalgia, etc. They suppress mood shifts. Take the time to research the mood stabilizer prescribed to you: -  Prescribing Information -  Boxed Warnings -  Medication Guide -  Be aware of any guidelines or warnings if taken in conjunction with other psychiatric medications Below is a list of mood stabilizers in the U.S.A. Generic Name Brand Name/Registered ® Trademark and their website Pharmaceutical or Marketing company who manufactures/markets the Brand Name Brands are listed for informational purposes only with no intention of infringement of their Registered ® Trademark/Copyright ©. Mood stabilizer: Lithium Carbonate  Eskalith ® - discontinued GlaxoSmithKline Lithobid ®  www.lithobid.net Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. / Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. Anticonvulsant Mood stabilizer: Carbamazepine  Tegretol ®, Tegretol ® XR (Extended-Release) Novartis Pharmaceuticals Equetro ®  http://equetro.com Validus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Divalproex Sodium Depakote ®, Depakote ® ER (Extended-Release), Depakote ® Sprinkle Capsules  www.depakoteer.com Abbott Laboratories Lamotrigine  Lamictal...

Mood stabilizers are used to ...

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Antidepressant

Antidepressant

Antidepressants are used to treat mood disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder, as well as Anxiety disorders (Panic or Social Anxiety), Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD), Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), Fibromyalgia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), etc. Take the time to research the Antidepressant prescribed to you: -  Prescribing Information -  Boxed Warnings -  Medication Guide -  Be aware of any guidelines or warnings if taken in conjunction with other psychiatric medications Below is a list of Antidepressants in the U.S.A. Generic Name Brand Name/Registered ® Trademark and their website Pharmaceutical or Marketing company who manufactures/markets the Brand Name Brands are listed for informational purposes only with no intention of infringement of their Registered ® Trademark/Copyright ©. SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor: Citalopram HBr (Hydrobromide) Celexa ® Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Escitalopram Oxalate Lexapro ® Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Fluoxetine Prozac ® - discontinued Lilly USA, LLC Fluoxetine...

Antidepressants are used to t...

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Serotonin Syndrome

Serotonin Syndrome

Serotonin Syndrome (also called Serotonin Toxicity, Serotonin Toxidrome, Serotonin Sickness, Serotonin Storm, Serotonin Poisoning, Hyperserotonemia, or Serotonergic Syndrome) is a potentially life threatening drug reaction that causes the body to have too much Serotonin. Most often occurs when two drugs that affect the body's level of Serotonin are taken together at the same time. The drugs cause too much Serotonin to be released or to remain in the brain area. Signs or symptoms: Agitation Diarrhea Heavy sweating not due to activity Fever Mental status changes such as confusion or hypomania Muscle spasms (myoclonus) Overactive reflexes (hyperreflexia) Shivering Tremor Uncoordinated movements (ataxia) The most important symptoms for diagnosing Serotonin Syndrome are tremor, akathisia (unpleasant sensations of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless), or clonus (series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations). Serotonin Syndrome is not diagnosed until...

Serotonin Syndrome (also calle...

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35

Medication Chart

I created a number of charts to help record important information needed during the process of treating a mental illness.  Charts to easily record: Contact Information of Medical Providers An address book page to enter Doctor, Psychiatrist, Therapist, Crisis Hotline and others' information: Name Title Place Street Address City, State  Zip Phone Number (s) Fax Online Monthly Calendar for Appointment Setting A critical part of recovery is knowing when appointments are.  A one page calendar month to enter appointments, an ideal companion to the Contact Information page for canceling or rescheduling.  It is designed Monday - Sunday. Daily Tasks & Goals Each line ending with a check off box.  Print 7 of these to track a week's worth of activity.  This can help expose ways to change day-to-day functioning. Diagnoses A place...

I created a number of charts t...

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12 Steps

12 Steps

The Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous We admitted we were powerless over alcohol—that our lives had become unmanageable. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of Godas we understood Him. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. Admitted to God, to ourselves, and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character. Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings. Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others. Continued to take personal inventory and when...

The Twelve Steps of Alcoholics...

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Serenity

Serenity

... Grant me the ... Serenity to accept the things I cannot change Courage to change the things I can The Wisdom to know the difference Patience for the things that take time Appreciation for all that I have Tolerance for those with different struggles Freedom to live beyond the limitations of my past ways Ability to feel love and give love to others Strength to get up and try again; even when I feel it is hopeless Patience to live one day at a time; enjoying one moment at a time Modified version of Serenity Prayer by Reinhold Niebuhr Feature Image Source: Apple Desktop Image...

... Grant me the ... Serenity...

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Psychoactive

Psychoactive

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood–brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior.  These substances may be used recreationally, to purposefully alter one's consciousness, as entheogens, for ritual, spiritual, and/or shamanic purposes, as a tool for studying or augmenting the mind, or therapeutically as medication. Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups according to their pharmacological effects: Stimulants ("uppers").  This category comprises substances that wake one up, stimulate the mind, and may even cause euphoria, but do not affect perception. Examples: coffee, tobacco, amphetamine, tea, cacao, guarana, maté, ephedra, khat, and coca. Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics.  This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria. Examples: opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol. Hallucinogens, including psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants.  This category encompasses all those substances that produce distinct...

A psychoactive drug, psychop...

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SPECT

SPECT

What is SPECT?  It is an acronym for Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography.  SPECT is a sophisticated nuclear medicine study that looks directly at cerebral blood flow and indirectly at brain activity (or metabolism). A radioactive isotope is bound to a substance that is readily taken up by the cells in the brain.  A small amount of this compound is injected into the patient’s vein where it runs throughout the blood stream and is taken up by certain receptor sites in the brain.  The patient then lies on a table for 14-16 minutes while a SPECT "gamma" camera rotates slowly around his head.  The camera has special crystals that detect where the compound has gone.  A supercomputer then reconstructs 3-D images of...

What is SPECT?  It is an acr...

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Test Brain

Brain Imaging

"His brain imaging work has taught him that our brains typically become less active with age and we become more vulnerable to memory problems and depression. Yet, one of the most exciting lessons he has learned is that with a little forethought and a brain-smart plan, you can slow, or even reverse, the aging process in the brain." Use Your Brain to Change Your Age by Daniel G. Amen I was amazed in learning about Dr. Amen's work.  A test.  A real test that can show your brain's activity and relate it's performance to a psychiatric disorder like ADD. Here's a SPECT imaging of a woman's brain who suffered from severe ADD and dyslexia and the resulting changes after treatment. A classic ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) SPECT's...

"His brain imaging work has ta...

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GROUP THERAPY

Group Therapy

"I must build a support group with those whom I am transparent and will be honest. Examination means facing the truth" Building my support group began in Group Therapy.  It's amazing the progress you see when meeting others who can empathize with how you feel. It is a powerful form of help. Second building block is a Support System.  It is the circle of people you choose to keep close while in recovery.  The ones that will be caring and not judge.  Your doctors, peers, family & friends.  Those you trust will have your best interest at heart. Those last block & most important thing you can do to help yourself is to be honest when sharing in these trusted circles.  They are there to help you...

"I must build a support gro...

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EMOTIONS

Emotions Anonymous

"Feelings and emotions are very powerful. If you are not careful, your feelings and emotions can run your life. A life run by feelings and emotions can be very chaotic. Feelings and emotions cannot be always controlled, however, we can control our actions. Sometimes what you are feeling can be overwhelming and it can cloud your judgement. Making it difficult to control your actions. Feelings and emotions are very powerful, yet, we can't allow them to control us. You should always acknowledge what you are feeling, embrace it, but give time before taking action upon it. Never make a choice in the moment (out of emotion) because once you have cooled down, you might not feel the same way. Feelings and emotions are a part of our lives, but they do not have...

"Feelings and emotions are ver...

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HEAL BRAIN

Can a Brain Heal ?

Current scientific knowledge reports that when a nerve cell dies, it does not grow back.  However, existing nerve cells can grow branches or arms called dendrites that can connect to living nerve cells.  When your brain cells are reconnected, you obtain your previous level of functioning and that part of your brain is healed. Growing dendrites is a normal healing process of the brain. It is also part of the normal learning process.  When you learn a new complex behavior, the brain actually grows dendrites to make nerve connections more elaborate. To help the brain heal you need: Proper Nutrition Rest - A good night's sleep Stress Free Environment Stimulation Exercise - Stimulates circulation to provide nutrition to each cell Love & Nurturance - Support groups, Self-love In addition...

Current scientific knowledge r...

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ELECTROCONVULSIVE

Memory Loss & ECT

I pondered the question, "Why does ECT cause memory loss?" ECT research would only explain memory loss as a result/side effect of the treatment. So I dig deeper. What does ECT do?  It creates electric currents to pass through the brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure. What is a seizure?   A seizure is the result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Learning about seizures lead me to the word, "convulsions". Convulsions are when a person's body shakes rapidly and uncontrollably. During convulsions, the person's muscles contract and relax repeatedly.   This is the end result from a type of seizure.  Not all seizures result in physical reactions as strong as this.  Some are mild and undetected. So ECT intentionally produces convulsions.   That explains...

I pondered the question, "Why ...

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ECT

ECT ( Electroconvulsive therapy )

What is ECT?  It stands for electroconvulsive therapy, formerly known as electroshock, a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in anesthetized patients for therapeutic effect. ECT therapy is most often recommended for use as a treatment for severe depression which has not responded to other treatment, and is also used in the treatment of mania and catatonia. Electroconvulsive therapy can differ in its application in three ways: electrode placement, frequency of treatments, and the electrical waveform of the stimulus.  These three forms of application have significant differences in both adverse side effects and positive outcomes.  After treatment, drug therapy is usually continued, and some patients receive continuation/maintenance ECT. Immediately following treatment the most common adverse effects are confusion and memory loss.  The state of confusion usually disappears after a few hours....

What is ECT?  It stands for e...

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SSRIs

SSRIs

SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are used to treat Depression.  There are so many brands and new ones always surfacing in commercials.  Here is a start to comparing the medications available.   Reference: eMedTV Source: http://depression.emedtv.com/ssris/comparisons-of-ssri-antidepressants.html...

SSRIs (selective serotonin reu...

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