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Co occuring

Co-occuring / Dual Diagnosis

Co-occurring Disorders and Dual Diagnosis Often times, there is a connection between alcohol and drug abuse and a mental disorder. While this is not always true, many people who enter rehab find that they must be treated appropriately for each condition. Alcohol and drug abuse are often associated with these mental disorders: Depression Schizophrenia Anxiety disorders Personality disorders There are times when the alcohol or drug abuse occurs first. Over a period of time, substance abuse can result in mental and emotional problems. There are also times when the mental problem occurs first. Subsequently, this can cause a person to turn to alcohol or drugs in an attempt to feel better. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, it is essential for both conditions to be...

Co-occurring Disorders and Dua...

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List of Drugs

List of Drugs in Addiction

Common illicit drugs: Bath salts: A fairly new synthetic powder, typically containing the stimulant cathinone, that can be 10 times as potent as cocaine. Highly dangerous from the first use, with violent or psychotic behavior as regular side effects, and multiple deaths reported. Cocaine: White powdery stimulant, usually snorted through the nose to induce a short, powerful rush of energy and euphoria. Highly addictive, and the second-most popular illicit substance on the market. Crack: Also known as freebase cocaine, this is a crystallized form of coke designed to be smoked. It is highly addictive. Crystal meth: Slang term for methamphetamine, a notoriously addictive stimulant that is sold as an odorless yet bitter-tasting white powder. Provide a short, intense euphoric feeling after being snorted, swallowed,...

Common illicit drugs: Bath sa...

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more than sad

Teen Depression

Depression in teens can look very different from depression in adults.  The following symptoms of depression are more common in teenagers than in their adult counterparts. Irritable or angry mood – As noted above, irritability, rather than sadness, is often the predominant mood in depressed teens.  A depressed teenager may be grumpy, hostile, easily frustrated, or prone to angry outbursts. Unexplained aches and pains – Depressed teens frequently complain about physical ailments such as headaches or stomachaches.  If a thorough physical exam does not reveal a medical cause, these aches and pains may indicate depression. Extreme sensitivity to criticism – Depressed teens are plagued by feelings of worthlessness, making them extremely vulnerable to criticism, rejection, and failure.  This is a particular problem for “over-achievers.” Withdrawing from some,...

Depression in teens can look...

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addiction prevention

Addiction Prevention

"When students are educated on the “big picture” of drug use and abuse, they are better prepared to make responsible decisions on drug use in their own lives." Quoted from Source:  educatorlabs.org - addiction prevention lesson plans Addiction Prevention - Education Resources: educatorlabs.org newbeginningsdrugrehab.org justice.gov Learn about Addiction: drugrehab.com    ...

"When students are educated on...

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Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder.  A disease in which there is a progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. Normally, there are brain cells (neurons) in the human brain that produce dopamine.  These neurons concentrate in a particular area of the brain, called the substantia nigra.  Dopamine is a chemical that relays messages between the substantia nigra and other parts of the brain to control movements of the human body.  Dopamine helps humans to have smooth coordinated muscle movements. When approximately 60 to 80% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, and do not produce enough dopamine, the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease appear.  This process of impairment of brain cells is called neurodegeneration. Parkinsonism is an inclusive term, which means...

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is...

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Electronic Implant for Memory

Electronic Implant for Memory

Theodore Berger, a biomedical engineer and neuroscientist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, envisions a day in the not too distant future when a patient with severe memory loss can get help from an electronic implant.  In people whose brains have suffered damage from Alzheimer’s, stroke, or injury, disrupted neuronal networks often prevent long-term memories from forming. Berger has designed silicon chips to mimic the signal processing that those neurons do when they’re functioning properly—the work that allows us to recall experiences and knowledge for more than a minute.  Ultimately, Berger wants to restore the ability to create long-term memories by implanting chips like these in the brain. Berger and his research partners have yet to conduct human tests...

Theodore Berger, a biomedical ...

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Alzheimers

Alzheimer’s

Dementia is not a specific disease. It's an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities.  Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases.  Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies. Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as "senility" or "senile dementia," which reflects the formerly widespread but incorrect belief that serious mental decline is a normal part of aging. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disorder that damages...

Dementia is not a specific dis...

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Dissociative Disorder

Dissociative Disorder

Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity or perception.  People with dissociative disorders use dissociation, a defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily.  Dissociative disorders are thought to primarily be caused by psychological trauma. Dissociative identity disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder): the alternation of two or more distinct personality states with impaired recall among personality states.  In extreme cases, the host personality is unaware of the other, alternating personalities; however, the alternate personalities are aware of all the existing personalities.  This category now includes the old derealization disorder category. Dissociative amnesia (formerly psychogenic amnesia): the temporary loss of recall memory, specifically episodic memory, due to a traumatic or stressful event.  It is considered the most common dissociative disorder amongst those documented.  This disorder...

Dissociative disorders (DD) a...

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eating disorder

Eating Disorder

Eating disorders are conditions defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Classified: Anorexia nervosa (AN), characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight, an obsessive fear of gaining weight, and an unrealistic perception of current body weight.  However, some patients can suffer from anorexia nervosa unconsciously. These patients are classified under "atypical eating disorders".  Anorexia can cause menstruation to stop, and often leads to bone loss, loss of skin integrity, etc.  It greatly stresses the heart, increasing the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems.  The risk of death is greatly increased in individuals with this disease.  Social pressures in society and media play a role in individuals' obsession on their outer appearances....

Eating disorders are conditio...

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Compulsive Hoarding

Compulsive Hoarding

Compulsive Hoarding (Hoarding Disorder) is a pattern of behavior that is characterized by the excessive acquisition of and inability or unwillingness to discard large quantities of objects that cover the living areas of the home and cause significant distress or impairment.  Compulsive hoarding behavior has been associated with health risks, impaired functioning, economic burden, and adverse effects on friends and family members.  When clinically significant enough to impair functioning, hoarding can prevent typical uses of space so as to limit activities such as cooking, cleaning, moving through the house, and sleeping.  It can also be dangerous if it puts the individual or others at risk from fire, falling, poor sanitation, and other health concerns. Brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) scans that detect the...

Compulsive Hoarding (Hoarding...

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is the common name for a group of significantly debilitating medical conditions characterized by persistent fatigue and other specific symptoms that lasts for a minimum of six months in adults (and 3 months in children or adolescents).  The fatigue is not due to exertion, not significantly relieved by rest, and is not caused by other medical conditions.  CFS may also be referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), or by several other terms.  Biological, genetic, infectious and psychological mechanisms have been proposed, but the etiology of CFS is not understood and it may have multiple causes. Symptoms of CFS include malaise after exertion; unrefreshing sleep, widespread muscle and joint pain, sore throat, headaches of a type not previously experienced, cognitive difficulties, chronic and severe mental...

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS...

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome

Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements). Tourette syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS, Tourette's or TS is aninherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.  Persists more than one year and began before the age of 18 years old. Tics are movements or sounds "that occur intermittently and unpredictably out of a background of normal motor activity", having the appearance of "normal behaviors gone wrong". The tics associated with Tourette's change in number, frequency, severity and anatomical location. Waxing and waning—the ongoing increase and decrease in severity and frequency of tics—occurs differently in each individual. Tics also occur in "bouts of bouts", which vary...

Tic disorders are defined in ...

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pica

Pica

Pica is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as ice, clay, chalk, dirt, or sand. According to DSM-IVcriteria, for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate, not part of culturally sanctioned practice and sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance.  It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development.  In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies. Pica has...

Pica is characterized by an ...

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The term "spectrum" refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment, or disability, that children with ASD can have.  Some children are mildly impaired by their symptoms, but others are severely disabled. ASD is diagnosed according to guidelines listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR).  The manual currently defines five disorders, sometimes called pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), as ASD: Autistic disorder (classic autism) A disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication, and by restricted, repetitive or stereotyped behavior.  The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent before a child is three years old Asperger's disorder (Asperger syndrome) Characterized by significant difficulties in social...

Autism is a group of developme...

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psychosis

Psychosis

Psychosis (Greek "psyche" for mind/soul, and "-osis" for abnormal condition or derangement) refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".  People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. Psychosis is a loss of contact with reality that usually includes: False beliefs about what is taking place or who one is (delusions) Seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations) A number of medical problems can cause psychosis, including: Alcohol and certain illegal drugs, both during use and during withdrawal Brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and certain chromosomal disorders Brain tumors or cysts Dementia (including Alzheimer's disease) HIV and other infections that affect the brain Some prescription drugs, such as steroids and stimulants Some types of epilepsy Stroke Psychosis (or psychotic symptoms) may also...

Psychosis (Greek "psyche" fo...

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Depression

Depression

"People think depression is about being sad.  They think its just when you 'feel down'  It's not.  It's like a darkness that creeps over you and fills you.  It drains all your emotions.  It takes everything from you, and leaves you feeling hollow and numb.  It's not sadness, it's not anger, it's hopelessness.  Imagine waking up and there being no colour.  Walking outside and feeling no wind.  Eating a meal and tasting nothing.  Holding someone and feeling completely alone at the same time.  When you're depressed, it's not a bad mood.  It's a numb, empty hollowness that seems to never leave.  It's feeling alone in a room full of people.  You feel like there's no hope left." Quoted from Source:  twitter.com/Depressed6irl...

"People think depression is ab...

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Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder

Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps.  Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods. True clinical Depression is a Mood Disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for weeks or longer. Depression can change or distort the way you see yourself, your life, and those around you. People who have Depression usually see everything with a more negative attitude.  They cannot imagine that any problem or situation can be solved in a positive way. Symptoms of Depression can include: Agitation, restlessness, and irritability Becoming withdrawn or isolated Difficulty concentrating Dramatic change in appetite, often with weight gain or loss Fatigue and lack of energy Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness Feelings...

Depression may be describ...

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Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is characterized by extreme expressions of anger, often to the point of uncontrollable rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand.It is currently categorized as an Impulse Control Disorder.Impulsive aggression is unpremeditated, and is defined by a disproportionate reaction to any provocation, real or perceived.  Some individuals have reported affective changes prior to an outburst such as tension, mood changes, energy changes, etc.Individuals diagnosed with IED report their outbursts were brief (lasting less than an hour), with a variety of bodily symptoms (sweating, chest tightness, twitching, palpitations).Violent acts may be accompanied by a sensation of relief, and in some cases, pleasure, then remorse after the fact.Criteria:Occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or...

Intermittent Explosive Disorde...

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Personality Disorders

Personality Disorder

It's strange the word Disorder is attached to the word Personality. We want to believe our Personality shapes who we are. But from some, it may be a trait that feels uncontrolled and affects life experiences. I've read it described as: Set of enduring behavioral and mental traits that distinguish human beings Personality disorders are defined by experiences and behaviors that differ from societal norms and expectations. Appear to deviate from social expectations particularly in relating to other humans Hmmm.  Societal Norms...

It's strange the word Disorder...

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BDD

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, also known as Dysmorphophobia) You can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance — a flaw that is either minor or imagined. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful that you don't want to be seen by anyone. Body Dysmorphic Disorder has been called imagined ugliness. Manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. BDD is linked to a diminished quality of life.  Features a suicidal ideation rate of 80%. A study found the completed-suicide rate in patients with BDD to be 45 times higher than that of the general United States population. This rate is more than double that of those with Clinical Depression and three times as high as that of those with Bipolar Disorder. Body Dysmorphic Disorder is diagnosed...

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD,...

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OCD

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive - Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear, or worry.  Resulting in repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety. The frequent upsetting thoughts are called Obsessions.  Obsessions are thoughts that recur and persist despite efforts to ignore or confront them.  To try to control them (the upsetting thoughts), a person will feel an overwhelming urge to repeat certain rituals or behaviors called Compulsions. Symptoms of OCD can include: excessive washing or cleaning repeated checking extreme hoarding preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts relationship-related obsessions aversion to particular numbers nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room Sufferers commonly share personality traits such as high attention to detail, avoidance of risk, careful...

Obsessive - Compulsive Disorde...

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Dopamine

Addiction

Normal Dopamine molecule binds to a Dopamine receptor (in pink).  After the Dopamine binds, it comes off the receptor and is removed from the synaptic cleft by uptake pumps (also proteins) that reside on the terminal (arrows show the direction of movement).  This process is important because it ensures that not too much Dopamine remains in the synaptic cleft at any one time.  There are neighboring neurons that release another compound called a neuromodulator.  Neuromodulators help to enhance or inhibit neurotransmission that is controlled by neurotransmitters such as Dopamine.   In this case, the neuromodulator is an "endorphin" (in red).  Endorphins bind to opiate receptors (in yellow) which can reside on the post-synaptic cell (shown here) or, in some cases, on...

Normal Dopamine molecule bi...

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Melancholia

Melancholia

Melancholia a mood disorder of non-specific Depression, characterized by low levels of both enthusiasm and eagerness for activity. Melancholic Depression or Depression with Melancholic features: one of the following symptoms anhedonia  (the inability to find pleasure in positive things) lack of mood reactivity  (i.e. mood does not improve in response to positive events) at least three of the following symptoms depression that is subjectively different from grief or loss severe weight loss or loss of appetite psychomotor agitation or retardation early morning awakening guilt that is excessive worse mood in the morning Melancholic features apply to an episode of Depression that occurs as part of either Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder I or Bipolar Disorder II. Melancholic Depression is often considered to be a biologically based and particularly severe form of Depression. Sometimes stressful situations can trigger episodes of Melancholic Depression,...

Melancholia a mood disorder...

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Thought Disorder

Thought Disorder

Thought Disorder underlies multiple mental illnesses. Symptoms: Flight of Ideas – Language may be difficult to understand,  it switches quickly from one unrelated idea to another. Long-winded and very delayed at reaching its goal Schizophasia – (Incoherence or Word salad) Characterized by confused usage of words with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them.  Words are inappropriately strung together resulting in "gibberish." Alogia – (Poverty of Speech) Deficiency in content of speech compared to what level of information is normally expected. "One word" direct answers without expanding.  Another question must be asked to learn more. Blocking – Interruption of train of speech before completion. Forgets what one is saying (or not recall the topic) mid-speech. Circumstantiality – Speech that is highly detailed and very delayed at reaching its goal. Speaking about many concepts related to the point of...

Thought Disorder underlies mu...

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Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizoaffective disorder has features that resemble both Schizophrenia and Mood (affective) Symptoms. A person who has Schizoaffective Disorder will experience delusions, hallucinations, other symptoms that are characteristic of schizophrenia and significant disturbances in their mood. People who experience more than two weeks of psychotic symptoms in the absence of severe mood disturbances—and then have symptoms of either Depression or Bipolar Disorder—may have Schizoaffective Disorder. Depressive symptoms associated with Schizoaffective disorder can include—but are not limited to— hopelessness helplessness guilt worthlessness disrupted appetite disturbed sleep inability to concentrate, depressed mood (with or without suicidal thoughts). Manic (Bipolar) symptoms associated with Schizoaffective Disorder can include — increased energy decreased sleep (or decreased need for sleep) distractibility fast (“pressured”) speech increased impulsive behaviors (e.g., sexual activities, drug and alcohol abuse, gambling or spending large amounts of money) Sometimes people with other...

Schizoaffective disorder has f...

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Blunted affect

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

I found these comic strips made by an artist expressing what she learned in Psych Class. I also posted sketches finding humor in a person's own experience with Depression. Featured Image Artist: ladyz0e.deviantart.com - Schizophrenia - 1 - Hallucinations ladyz0e.deviantart.com - Schizophrenia - 2 - Delusions ladyz0e.deviantart.com - Schizophrenia - 3 - Negative Symptoms...

I found these comic strips mad...

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illusion

Schizophrenia

Symptoms of Schizophrenia Hallucinations: seeing, hearing, smelling or feeling things that no one else is experiencing. A decline in social functioning and an increase in isolating themselves. Delusions, such as believing they have super-natural powers, they are being sent messages through the television or other outlets, or they are someone else, such as a famous historical figure. Talking in a garbled way that is hard to understand, or stopping abruptly in the middle of a thought. Agitated body movements, repetition of certain body movements over and over, or going into a catatonic state. Trouble understanding information and using it to make decisions. Trouble executing everyday tasks, such as personal hygiene. Hallucinations are things a person sees, hears, smells, or feels that no one else can see, hear, smell, or...

Symptoms of Schizophrenia ...

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MIGRAINE

Migraine

A typical migraine headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature and lasting from two to 72 hours. Symptoms may include: nausea vomiting photophobia (increased sensitivity to light) phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound) sensitivity to smells fatigue irritability pain aggravated by physical activity sense of the world spinning fainting confusion head splitting Approximately one-third of people who suffer from migraine headaches perceive an aura—transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbances signaling the migraine will soon occur.  Sometimes an aura can occur with little or no headache following it. Migraines may be induced by triggers.  A trigger may occur up to 24 hours prior to the onset of symptoms. Triggers: stress hunger fatigue sensitivity to a smell motion sickness hormonal: menstruation, pregnancy, menopause dietary: monosodium glutamate (MSG) sodium nitrate, a food additive used as a preservative and color fixative in cured meats and poultry sodium nitrite,  a food...

A typical migraine headache is...

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IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER

Impulse Control Disorder

An impulse control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterised by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, urge or impulse that may harm oneself or others. Five behavioural stages characterize impulsivity: An impulse Growing tension Pleasure from acting Relief from the urge Finally guilt (which may or may not arise) So here's a list of some considered to be under the umbrella of ICD: Kleptomania  -  urge to steal purely for the sake of gratification Pathological Gambling  -  re-current episodes of gambling disruptive to one's life Pyromania  -  fire-starting Trichotillomania  -  a compulsion to pull one's hair out Intermittent Explosive Disorder  -  recurent aggressive episodes that are out of proportion of any given stressor Dermatillomania  -  compulsive skin picking Sexual Compulsion - increased urge in sexual behavior and thoughts Compulsive Shopping - frequent irresistible urge to shop even if...

An impulse control disorder ...

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Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs) involves a person causing harm or damage to themselves or their appearance. It can occur when a person experiences feelings such as anxiety, fear, excitement or boredom. BFRBs include: Trichotillomania - Pull out the hair from their scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, pubic area, underarms, beard, chest, legs or other parts of the body, resulting in noticeable bald patches. Dermatillomania - Repetitively touch, rub, scratch, pick at, or dig into their skin, often in an attempt to remove small irregularities or perceived imperfections. This behavior may result in skin discoloration or scarring. In more serious cases, severe tissue damage and visible disfigurement can result. Onychophagia - Continually bite their nails past the nail bed and their cuticles until they bleed resulting in red, sore,...

Body-Focused Repetitive Behavi...

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HAIR PULLING

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania (trick-o-til-o-MAY-nee-ah) - A disorder that causes people to pull out their hair from one, two sites, or multiple of the following sites resulting in noticeable bald patches: scalp eyelashes eyebrows pubic area underarms beard chest legs other parts of the body Some experience: Inability to resist urges to pull out one's hair Mounting tension before one pulls Gratification and relaxation when pulling A feeling of relief after pulling Noticeable hair loss Increased distress and/or interference with daily life There is quality information available from the Trichotillomaina Learning Center (TLC) www.trich.org Quoted from Sources: trich.org - Hair Pulling wikipedia.org - Trichotillomania Featured Image Artist: deviantart.com - Trichotillomania & Trichophagia by lily-day...

Trichotillomania (trick-o-til-...

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FIBRO

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is diagnosed when a person has long-term, body-wide pain and tenderness in the joints, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues. It has been linked to fatigue, sleep problems, headaches, depression, and anxiety. Painful areas are called tender points.  Tender points are found in the soft tissue on the back of the neck, shoulders, chest, lower back, hips, shins, elbows, and knees.  The pain then spreads out from these areas. The pain may feel like a deep ache, or a shooting, burning pain. The joints are not affected, although the pain may feel like it is coming from the joints. To be diagnosed with Fibromyalgia, you must have had at least 3 months of widespread pain, and pain and tenderness in at least 11 of 18...

Fibromyalgia is diagnosed when...

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List of Mental Disorders

List of Mental Disorders

A mental illness can be defined as a health condition that changes a person’s thinking, feelings, or behavior (or all three) and that causes the person distress and difficulty in functioning. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Always seek a medical professional’s guidance in further understanding a diagnosis. This list is compiled from a number of sources including National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) www.nimh.nih.gov, National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI) www.nami.org, Wikipedia search www.wikipedia.org, and PubMedHealth www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth Many sources utilize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).  It is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.  This manual is redefined every so many years as the industry changes. It is a personal...

A mental illness can be defi...

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Rejection

Love and Hate

I found an intense Q & A that helps to unravel the extremes of idealization and devaluation (love and hate) in BPD.    I have quoted a part of Dr. Robert Saltzman's answer below: Borderline Personality Disorder is a kind of mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in self-image, in moods, in interpersonal relationships, and in behavior.  To take an example of this instability in relationships, a PBD type of person might at one moment regard a friend or loved one with great admiration, affection, and love, and then suddenly, without warning, switch over to an attitude of irrational disappointment, vehement anger, or even hatred.  When this switch occurs, the BPD person will accuse the friend or loved one (or the therapist) of...

I found an intense Q & A t...

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Up and Down in Life

BPD

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a complex and serious mental illness that is frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The DSM IV-TR criteria for BPD includes: Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. [Not including suicidal or self-injuring behavior covered in Criterion 5] A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation. Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self. Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., promiscuous sex, eating disorders, binge eating, substance abuse, reckless driving). [Again, not including suicidal or self-injuring behavior covered in Criterion 5] Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats or self-injuring behavior such as cutting, interfering with the healing of scars (excoriation) or picking at oneself. Affective instability due...

Borderline Personality Disorde...

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Psychoactive

Psychoactive

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood–brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior.  These substances may be used recreationally, to purposefully alter one's consciousness, as entheogens, for ritual, spiritual, and/or shamanic purposes, as a tool for studying or augmenting the mind, or therapeutically as medication. Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups according to their pharmacological effects: Stimulants ("uppers").  This category comprises substances that wake one up, stimulate the mind, and may even cause euphoria, but do not affect perception. Examples: coffee, tobacco, amphetamine, tea, cacao, guarana, maté, ephedra, khat, and coca. Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics.  This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria. Examples: opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol. Hallucinogens, including psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants.  This category encompasses all those substances that produce distinct...

A psychoactive drug, psychop...

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DEPRESSION

Medical Conditions underlying (cause) Depression

There are a number of medical conditions that can mimic/cause the symptoms associated with Depression.  When you begin treatment, it is in your best interest to have a physical exam and blood work drawn to rule out or discover any underlying causes.  Others tests may include brain images or EEGs. A diagnosis of the Depression alone considers factors such as the chemicals in the brain, learned behaviors, belief systems, environment, etc. when developing a treatment plan. If there is an additional medical condition that is underlying the Depression, the treatment plan would include or solely target the underlying cause. Depression can co-exist with a major illness or is a reaction to the illness. Here is a list of some underlying medical conditions to consider: Hypothyroidism (Low)...

There are a number of medical ...

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Sylvia Plath

Sylvia Plath

I saw the movie Sylvia yesterday.  It is about the poet Sylvia Plath.  I chose this movie unaware of her story or even if she was based on truth.  A random choice from Netflix with a description that leaves much to be discovered: A whirlwind courtship kick-starts the tempestuous marriage between American poet and novelist Sylvia Plath (Gwyneth Paltrow) and English poet Ted Hughes (Daniel Craig), an intense and stormy union that quickly dissolves due to Hughes's philandering and Plath's insecurity. The intense struggle began in college: Following electroconvulsive therapy for depression, Plath made her first medically documented suicide attempt by crawling under her house and taking an overdose of her mother's sleeping pills.  She survived this first suicide attempt after lying unfound in a crawl space...

I saw the movie Sylvia yeste...

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COMPULSIVE SKIN PICKING

Compulsive Skin Picking

Dermatillomania - Compulsive Skin Picking (CSP) involves picking at normal skin variations such as freckles and moles, at actual pre-existing scabs, sores or acne blemishes, or at imagined skin defects that nobody else can observe.  Fingernails, teeth, tweezers, pins or other possible mechanical devices are used and as a result, CSP may cause bleeding, bruises, infections, and/or permanent disfigurement of the skin. Sometimes skin-picking is preceded by a high level of tension and a strong "itch" or "urge".  Likewise, skin-picking may be followed by a feeling of relief or pleasure.  A CSP episode may be a conscious response to anxiety or depression, but is frequently done as an unconscious habit. Psychiatrists classify this as an Impulse Control Disorder.  In addition to Dermatillomania and...

Dermatillomania - Compulsive S...

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EMPATHY

Empathy

......., On Friday I felt incredibly low, a grim feeling geared mostly to myself.  It's a blessing and curse to feel like you live and exist for others.  Life should be lived and loved first for our own.  That is the goal.  The love that exists for your daughter and I for my siblings is not by chance or luck.  It exists as a the part of our hearts to hold on.  Holding on will one day open the rest of our hearts to make room for self-love.  The capability has to be there.  It's a matter of learning how to reach it. You talked about your inability to stand being alone.  As you know, it's not your fault.  It is a...

......., On Friday I felt i...

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BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Borderline Personality Disorder is a condition in which people have long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions, such as feelings about themselves and others. These inner experiences often cause them to take impulsive actions and have chaotic relationships. People with BPD are often uncertain about their identity.  As a result, their interests and values may change rapidly. They also tend to see things in terms of extremes, such as either all good or all bad.  Their views of other people may change quickly.  A person who is looked up to one day may be looked down on the next day. These suddenly shifting feelings often lead to intense and unstable relationships. Other symptoms of BPD include: Fear of being abandoned Feelings of emptiness and boredom Frequent displays...

Borderline Personality Disorde...

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AGORAPHOBIA

What is Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is considered to be present when places or situations are being avoided.  People with agoraphobia generally do not feel safe in public places.  Their fear is worse when the place is crowded.  Symptoms of agoraphobia include: Becoming housebound for prolonged periods of time Dependence on others Fear of being alone Fear of being in places where escape might be difficult Fear of losing control in a public place Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others Feelings of helplessness Feeling that the body is unreal Feeling that the environment is unreal Unusual temper or agitation Agoraphobia is based on a fear of experiencing physical symptom attacks in certain types of situations.  For example, you have a panic attack on the train.  Hence, you develop a fear of trains in order to prevent...

Agoraphobia is considered to b...

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ALCOHOL DEPRESSANT

Alcohol is a Depressant

Alcohol is a depressant, which means it slows the function of the central nervous system.  Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain.  This alters a person's perceptions, emotions, movement, vision, and hearing. In very small amounts, alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed or less anxious.  More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication.  People who have overused alcohol may stagger, lose their coordination, and slur their speech.  They will probably be confused and disoriented.  Depending on the person, intoxication can make someone very friendly and talkative or very aggressive and angry.  Reaction times are slowed dramatically — which is why people are told not to drink and drive.  People who are intoxicated...

Alcohol is a depressant, whic...

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ADHD

Understanding ADD/ADHD

IS IT NORMAL  KID BEHAVIOR OR IS IT ADHD? The signs and symptoms of ADD/ADHD typically appear before the age of seven. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between attention deficit disorder and normal “kid behavior.” If you spot just a few signs, or the symptoms appear only in some situations, it’s probably not ADD/ADHD. On the other hand, if your child shows a number of ADD/ADHD signs and symptoms that are present across all situations—at home, at school, and at play—it’s time to take a closer look. Once you understand the issues your child is struggling with, such as forgetfulness or difficulty paying attention in school, you can work together to find creative solutions and capitalize on strengths. Some children with ADD/ADHD...

IS IT NORMAL  KID BEHAVIOR OR...

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BIPOLAR OR ADHD

Is it Bipolar or ADHD?

So what are the signs of adult ADHD?  Here it is: 1. Easily agitated If children with ADHD may be too energetic, then adults with ADHD are just feeling tense or nervous. “Adults do not show signs of a more obvious like running and jumping. Hyperactivity presented more subtle form of anxiety,” said Colette de Marneffe, PhD, a clinical psychologist in Silver Spring, Md.. 2. Having a child with ADHD ADHD has a genetic component. When one family member with ADHD, there is a possibility of 25 to 35 percent of the people or descendants in the family experience as well, according to the Attention Deficit Disorder Association. 3. Have problems in relationships “Often adults with ADHD actually have difficulty with transitions (love affair). When the...

So what are the signs of adult...

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CRAZY

” Ponder “

Meaningful Quotes from Films Revolutionary Road: Hopeless emptiness.  Now you've said it.  Plenty of people are onto the emptiness, but it takes real guts to see the hopelessness. Tell me the truth, Frank, remember that?  We used to live by it.  And you know what's so good about the truth?  Everyone knows what it is however long they've lived without it.  No one forgets the truth, Frank, they just get better at lying. I want to feel things.  Really feel them. If being crazy means living life as if it matters, then I don't mind being completely insane. If you wanted to do something absolutely honest, something true, it always turned out to be a thing that had to be done alone. If you don’t try at...

Meaningful Quotes from Films ...

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MOVIES AND MENTAL ILLNESS

Mental illness in Movies

I've watched a number of films depicting a mental disorder from true life experiences (mental illness in movies).  As dark and heavy they are, I felt a sense of relief in knowing I am not the only one.  Some have a positive outcome, some don't.  When I say not the only one, I mean ...

I've watched a number of films...

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PARENT WITH DEPRESSION

Raising Children while dealing With Depression

"As a parent with depression, one of the toughest things one has to do is put on all the masks.  But are they really working?  Kids today are become harder to fool.  So with that being said; Who's the fool here?" Parents with a mental illness typically wonder whether it’s best to disclose their diagnosis to their kids.  On the one hand, you want to be open and honest. On the other hand, you may think that not saying anything protects your child.  A parent’s natural instinct to want to shield your child from any confusion or concern.  However, according to research, not telling your child can actually have the opposite effect. Research shows that if parents don’t tell children about their...

"As a parent with depression, ...

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SUICIDAL THOUGHTS

Suicide – How RaW Depression ExisTs

  "Death is not the most tragic loss in life, the most tragic loss is what dies inside of you while you are still alive" The feelings of hopelessness are real and will not go away of their own.  Suicide is tempting, but not the answer.  These suicidal thoughts do not have live with you, you have a choice to fight it and rebuild what feels is lost inside of you. Help is available, please seek it out.  For you do not have to be alone in this struggle.  There are many who feel and think, " I want to die "  I have a number of times felt this way.  There is this small window of opportunity to make a choice and...

  "Death is not th...

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MANIC DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

Bipolar Disorder (manic-depressive) – Certain medications can trigger Mania

There are two primary types of bipolar disorder. Bipolar I:  Experience at least one fully manic episode with periods of major depression. Also known as manic-depressive disorder. Bipolar II: Seldom experience full-fledged mania; instead they experience periods of Hypomania (elevated levels of energy and impulsiveness that are not as extreme as the symptoms of mania). These hypomanic periods alternate with episodes of major depression. Cyclothymia:  is a mild form of bipolar disorder.  It involves periods of hypomania and mild depression, with less severe mood swings. Bipolar II or Cyclothymia may be misdiagnosed as having depression alone. Symptoms: The manic phase may last from days to months and can include the following symptoms: • Agitation or irritation • Elevated mood ◦ Hyperactivity ◦ Increased energy ◦ Lack of self-control ◦ Racing thoughts • Inflated...

There are two primary type...

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ISOLATION

Slipping ? Isolated ?

"What do you do when you feel yourself slipping, when the darkness is returning & the crave for isolation?  What do you do when death feels like a better option than fighting the battle of Depression, Substance Abuse, BiPolar Disorder, which ever mental illness it may be you are suffering from?  There has to be an easy way out, you tell yourself.  Well, there is and trust me when I say it's easier said than done.  This past week has been brutal, however learned in therapy that the more we talk, the more we open up, the LESS we experience all the negative thoughts: the jealously, sadness, guilt, hurt, nervousness, inferior, panic, betrayal, anger, worried, paranoid, disappointment in self, shame, resentment,...

"What do you do when you feel ...

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ANXIETY

Anxiety

"What brings on the anxiety?  I ask myself.  Is it situational?  Does it need to be situational?  My heart literally aches because the pounding is so intense.  My head feels as though it is going to explode.  The shortness of breath, the feeling that I'm going to die...

"What brings on the anxiety? ...

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CAUSE OF DEPRESSION

Cause of Depression

Provided by the Depression Health Channel on eMedTV.com Please view this well done video in explaining Depression and Why the Brain is considered a factor among other reasonings.  It is worth watching all 12 slides. Source: emedtv.com "eMedTV: Health Information Brought to Life" Video Link:  Video on Depression & the Brain Featured Image Source: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com...

Provided by the Depressio...

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CUTTING

Self Harm

About Self-Injury "While not always the case, often untreated depression and other struggles lead to unhealthy ways in which we try and deal with the hurt and pain we are feeling. We try and find anything that we can do to take away the hurt, painful feelings, or negative thoughts we are experiencing. Often the things that we turn to seem to help at first, appearing to provide some of the relief that we need so badly. But, even though they may seem like they help, often they are unhealthy themselves, eventually becoming even greater struggles like addictions such as drugs, alcohol, eating disorders, or self-injury.” “Self-injury is also termed self-mutilation, self-harm, or self-abuse. It can be defined as the deliberate, repetitive,...

About Self-Injury "While ...

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ABOUT DEPRESSION

About Depression

Clinical depression is still widely misunderstood. The prevailing attitude is "Keep a stiff upper lip, have a drink, maybe it will go away." Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts, that affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood.  It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be wished away. People with a depressive disease cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years.  Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people with depression. The signs and symptoms of depression include loss...

Clinical depression is still w...

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ANXIETY DISORDER

Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety Disorder is the most common mental illness in America: more than 19 million Americans are affected by these debilitating illnesses each year. Types: Panic Disorder Repeated episodes of intense fear that strike often and without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal distress, feelings of unreality, and/or fear of dying. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - OCD Repeated, unwanted thoughts or compulsive behaviors that seem impossible to stop or control. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - PTSD Persistent symptoms that occur after experiencing a traumatic event such as rape or other criminal assault, war, child abuse, natural disasters, or crashes. Nightmares, flashbacks, numbing sensations, depression, and feeling angry, irritable or distracted and being easily startled are common. Phobias Social Phobia - Overwhelming and disabling fear of scrutiny, embarrassment,...

Anxiety Disorder is the most c...

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WHAT IS MENTAL ILLNESS

What is Mental Illness

What is mental illness? Every organ in the human body has a function.  Numerous problems can arise with each organ. The specific problem with the organ and the resulting disorder determines the appropriate treatment. Mental illness is a brain dysfunction.  Your brain is an organ of the body. The dysfunction (malfunctioning) affects: Perception - May experience the world with their senses in an unusual/strange way.  (senses: Vision, Smell, Taste, Touch, Hearing).  e.g. hearing voices, seeing things that others do not see. Thinking - Thoughts may occur very quickly or slowly, may be poorly organized, confusing, illogical, irrational, etc. Mood - All human beings experience a variety of moods and mood changes, such as depression, anxiety, mania.  Mental illness can emerge when symptoms cause significant distress over time...

What is mental illness? Eve...

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