You’ve heard the story: Fluoxetine/Prozac increases serotonin levels.  But what difference does that make? What happens after serotonin increases? That’s a good question. Here’s the current working answer: it looks like antidepressants, and exercise, and other antidepressant approaches including even ECT (electroconvulsive therapy), all cause brain cells to start to feed themselves again. Huh? That’s right, these effective treatments all cause the brain to make a protein that helps cells grow and make connections to neighbors. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Quoted from Sources: - chapter 9 - good-news-anti-shrink-molecules/ - chapter 9 - continued-changes-inside-the-cell/  Featured Image Source:

You’ve heard the story: Fluo...

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Mechanisms of action of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Increased activity of cystine–glutamate antiporter results in increased activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors on inhibitory neurons and facilitates vesicular dopamine release; NAC is associated with reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines and acts as a substrate for glutathione synthesis. These actions are believed to converge upon mechanisms promoting cell survival and growth factor synthesis, leading to increased neurite sprouting. BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor; IL = interleukin; NADP = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NADPH = reduced form of NADP; TNF = tumour necrosis factor. Quoted from Source & Featured Image Source: - PMC - National Center for Biotechnology - US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011 March; 36(2):...

Mechanisms of action of N-a...

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